The word adolescence is coined from the Latin verb adolescere, meaning to grow into”maturity”. Adolescence consequently may be viewed as a process rather than a duration, a process of achieving the posture and credences needed for efficacious participation in a society.
it additionally affirmed that adolescence is that period of rapid magnification sandwich in between childhood and adulthood incorporating psychosocial as well as physical magnification.
Adolescents are often misunderstood by those who should provide them with genuine information about life generally.
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Also, there are some developmental tasks to accomplish which are;
FACTS CONCERNING ADOLESCENT ISSUES
-Estimated 1.2 million adolescents died in 2015, over 3000 everyday. Mostly from preventable or treatable causes.
-Road traffic injuries were the leading causes of adolescent deaths in 2015. Other major causes of adolescent deaths include lower respiratory infections,suicide, diarrhoeal diseases and drowning.
-Ecumenically, there are 44 births per 1000 to girls aged 15 to 19 per year.
-A moiety of all phrenic health disorders in adulthood start by age 14 but most cases are undetected and untreated.
PROBLEMS AND CHARACTERISTICS OF ADOLESCENTS
1. Physical body changes; Where magnification spurt occurs with the development of secondary sex characteristics, menarche (menstruation) takes place and the body develops into that of an adult.
2. A desire to leave childhood; This always looks discombobulating as sometimes he withal wants security and support like a child.
3. Idealism wherein the adolescents notion; They need a better world to live and this must be felicitously channeled or else they may cause uproaror violence in the community.
4. Health role; At this period they learn much on how to be responsible for their own health and lifestyle.
5. Openness to incipient conceptions and type of lifestyle; This makes them to cerebrate that parents, edifiers, elder brothers and sisters are “out of touch”.
FEATURES FOUND IN FEMALE ADOLESCENTS
-Breast and genital development.
– Armpit hair.
– Rounded body contours.
-Hairs in pubic areas.
-Magnetization to antithesis sex.
FEATURES FOUND IN MALE ADOLESCENTS
-Hairs on the face, chest, armpit.
-Vicissitude in voice. (voice becomes deep)
-Enlargement of scrotum, penis and prostate.
-Testes with infrequent ejaculation.
CHALLENGES FACED BY ADOLESCENTS
-The globalisation of communication and discombobulating messages about male versus female sexuality portrayed in the mass media.
-Inadequate access to felicitous information, inculcation and accommodations to meet their peculiar needs during this transitional period.
-General inequalities including the double standard on sex afore espousement,where premarital sex is restricted for girls and abode for boys. World Health Organisation (WHO) carries out arange of functions to amend the health of adolescent people, including:
*. production of evidence-predicated guidelines to fortify health accommodations and other sectors;
*. making recommendations to regimes on adolescent health and the provision of high quality, age-opportune health accommodations for adolescents;
*. Documenting progress in adolescent health and development; and
*.raising cognizance of health issues for adolescent people among the general public and other fascinated stakeholders.
SOME FEMALE ADOLESCENTS SEXUAL HEALTH PROBLEMS
-Teen gravidity is an issue of interest to many parents, edifiers and health workers because of its gregarious
– Economic influence on the female teenager.
when a female teenager becomes enceinte, teenage gravidity has taken place. It becomes anomalous when it transpires out of wedlock but in cultures where this is fortified, nothing seems to be erroneous with it among the inhabitants of the areas.
– Urbanisation, facile mobility and delayed espousements due to long periods devoted to the procurement of a vocation by the female which subsequently sanction more liberation with implicative insinuations for teenage and unwanted pregnancies.
-When female adolescents become enceinte (Pregnant) due to attendants socio-economic quandaries associated with it,most of them cerebrate of abortion. This is additionally a quandary in some countries where abortion is not yet legalized and so when it is to be done, it is often done in secrecy and conventionally quacks are consulted.
Sexual transmitted infections
-Unguided sexual exploration among adolescents lead to infection with disease that are sexually transmitted.Increase in sexuality transmitted disease in the world today can be attributed to early initiation into sexual activity and poor access to contraception and treatment facilities among adolescents.
-The current rigorous economic situation moral laxity, poor religious background,broken homes and lack of parental care are coercing many female adolescents into prostitution.Exposing them to diseases like HIV/AIDS
SOME MALE ADOLESCENTS SEXUAL HEALTH PROBLEMS
-This is self sexual stimulation of the genitalia to experience joyous sensual pleasure. While it can transpire additionally among females, it is conventionally more pronounced among male adolescents due to videos and film,obscene pictures etc.
Most cultures and religion frowns at masturbation and it may withal lead to poor salubrious sexual life in future.
Drug misuse and abuse
-Drug abuse is the unintentional or infelicitous utilization of prescribed on non-prescription drugs which may or may not lead to the impairment of the users physical, phrenic, emotional and psycho-gregarious disorder in which recurrences occur requiring periodic treatment.
>>METHOD OF ADMINISTRATION >>PSYCHOLOGICAL DEPENDENCY
>> POSSIBLE EFFECT.
Opium ->>> Oral, smoked->>>High->>>Euphoria, somnolence, respiratory dejection, nausea and constricted pupil.
Heroin ->>> Oral, Injected – High ->>> Euphoria, lethargy, respiratory melancholy,nausea and constricted pupil.
Alcohol ->>> Oral, Injected ->>> High->>> Sedation, poor judgement, liver and encephalon damage.
Cocaine ->>> Smoked, sniffing, injected->>>Exorbitant vigilantness, euphoria,insomnia, loss of appetite ->>> Dejection,irritability, exorbitant slumbering, toxic psychosis.
Marijauna ->>> Smoked, oral->>> High->>> Infertility, disoriented deportment,incremented appetite, euphoria.