Disease

Malaria: Serious Threat to Human

Malaria is considered as one of the deadliest disease because of its resistance to drugs. Malaria is a preventable and treatable disease which is caused by the parasite of the genus plasmodium transmitted by female anopheles mosquitoes carrying the sporozoa as it inoculates the sporozoites into the body during a blood meal and it can additionally be transmitted through transmission of blood containing erythrocytic phase of the parasite.

 Malaria is highly endemic in many developing countries and is one of the major causes of morbidity (sickness) and mortality (death) in tropical Africa.

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PATHOGENS RESPONSIBLE FOR MALARIA

-Plasmodium falciparum.

-Plasmodium malariae.
-Plasmodium ovale.
-Plasmodium vivax

N:B; Plasmodium falciparum and plasmodium vivax are the commonest species in virtually all components of Africa.

Malaria Parasite Treatment



KEY FACTS ABOUT MALARIA PARASITE
-Proximately a moiety of the people in the world are in jeopardy of malaria infection.

-P.falaparum is the parasite responsible for the astronomical majority of infections and deaths in Africa.

-In 2015, 91 countries and areas had perpetual malaria transmission.

-Between 2010 and 2015, malaria incidence among populations in peril (the rate of incipient cases) fell by 21% ecumenically. In that same period, malaria mortality rates among populations in jeopardy fell by 29% ecumenically among all age groups, and by 35% among children under 5.

-The WHO African region carries a disproportionately high quota of the ecumenical malaria burden. In 2015, the region was home to 90% of malaria cases and 92% of malaria deaths.

Life cycle of Malaria Parasite

LIFE CYCLE OF MALARIA PARASITE 1
-A mosquito (Anopheles) which is infected with the malaria parasite bites human, passing cells called sporozoites into the human blood stream.

-Sporozoites travel to the liver.Each sporozoites undergoes asexual reproduction, in which its nucleus splits to compose two incipient cells called merozoites.
-Merozoites enter the bloodstream and infect red blood cells.

LIFE CYCLE OF MALARIA PARASITE 11 & 111
Some of the incipiently released merozoites go on to infect other red blood cells.

-Another mosquito bites the infect human, ingesting the gametocytes.

-In the mosquito’s stomach,the gametocytes mature. Male and female gametocytes undergo sexual reproduction, cumulating to compose zygote. The zygote multiplies to form sporozoites, which peregrinate to the mosquito’s salivary glands.

SYMPTOMS OF MALARIA
-A sensation of algid with shivering.
-Pyrexia,headaches and regurgitating.
-Sweats, lassitude.
-Pyrexia.
-Multiple convulsions.
-Impaired consciousness.
-Respiratory distress

PEOPLE IN PERIL OF MALARIA
1. Children under age 5.
2. Pregnant women.
3. Inhabitants of areas with poor environmental sanitation.
4. Non-immune visitors to areas of malaria transmission.

AVERSION AND CONTROL OF MALARIA PARASITE
Malaria though it’s a pernicious disease can additionally be averted through the utilization of some preventive measures which are verbally expressed below;

1. Always slumber under a treated perdurable insecticides nets.

2. Obtain the medical ken-how on the symptoms of malaria.

3. Maintain an unsullied environment.

4. Water reservoir should be felicitously covered to avoid breeding of mosquitoes.
5. Use of indoor insecticides.
6. Obtain an anti-malaria medicines to avert malaria.

7. Sensitize the public about the pernicious effect of malaria.

DRUGS UTILIZED IN TREATMENT OF MALARIA PARASITE
Some of the drugs being prescribed to an infected person are listed as follows;

-Utilization of chloroquine.
-Atovaquone.
-Artemether-lumefantrine.
-Mefloquine.
-Quinine.
-Quinidine.

But the most efficacious drug utilized in treatment of malaria is the  Artemisinin coalescence

therapy(ACT).

Why is malaria a quandary?

There are sundry factors that makes it arduous to eradicate malaria in most countries especially African countries such as;

1. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS:
The environment mainly the tropical region and sub-Saharan regions of Africa is a very good site for the breeding of the parasites (mosquitoes). This is due to the fact that mosquitoes breeds in sites such as swamps, especially places where there is dihydrogen monoxide logs. Thus,making it arduous to eliminate the prevalence and incidence of malaria.

2. POOR ACCESS TO HEALTH CARE FACILITIES:
 The unavailability of adequate and operational healthcare inclines to embolden the rapid spread of malaria.This is due to the fact when there is adequate healthcare people will find it facile to receive treatment and get well,  hence, halting the spread of malaria to another salubrious person.

3. SOCIO – ECONOMIC STATUES:
The status of an individual determines his/her access to get healthcare likewise the caliber of edification of an individual.

4. CULTURE AND TRADITION:
Some culture and traditions preclude the intake of medications and hence avail in the incrementation of malaria spread in a given community.

5.CORRUPTION:
Since there is presence of corruption in every system including the health sector,the health facilities provided are not desirable e.g providing a drug of which its major constituents capable of bringing remedy is being superseded with a supplement that lacks such quality though won’t cause harm to the patient.

6.RESISTANCE TO ANTI-MALARIA DRUGS: 
Due to inadequate intake of anti-malaria drugs, P.falciparum in the blood stream (parasite) becomes resistance to anti-malaria drugs taken and this makes it very hard to eradicate malaria.

7. NON-ESSE OF MALARIA VACCINE:
Malaria is a quandary because it has no vaccine unlike measles, polio and tuberculosis etc. that has vaccines to obviate the disease and that makes it very hard for malaria to be eradicated.

EFFECTS OF MALARIA
1. It causes premature death and suffering.
2. It refrains economic magnification and amelioration in the standard of living.
3. Poor access to health system will lead to the spread of the disease.
4. Malaria infection results to 1 million deaths yearly ecumenically of which 90% emanate from Africa. Malaria indirectly contributes to death and other illness such as malnutrition, respiratory infection and organ damage.
5. Malaria infection brings increase in personal expenditure and stress of family household

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Zinnystar
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