These substances are:
-Fats and oil.
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A balance diet is a meal/diet which contains all nutrients required for a good health in their right proportions and this can be achieved by eating variety of food.This is because no single food contains the correct proportions of all essential nutrients.
When a particular nutrient is consumed in excess. It leads to obesity (overweight) and when a particular nutrient is in small quantity, it can lead to undernutrition.
Also, people who really need good and quality nutritions are;
-Children under 5 years.
-Covalescence (people recovering from an illness).
IMPORTANCE OF GOOD NUTRITION
It is said that you are what you eat, when you eat right, you are more likely to feel right.We require the right composition and consumption of all nutrient for our body system to function properly at all time.
-Good nutrition helps you look and feel young at all time.
-It helps in shaping the body.
-It result to radiant and glowing skin, hairs,nails.
-It helps in fast growth and development in children.
-It provides anti-oxidant which protects the body against diseases.
-It aids in the proper functioning of the body.
DISORDERS OF NUTRITION
These are some of the effects of improper consumption of nutrients;
CLASSES OF FOOD NUTRIENTS
Carbohydrate consist of Hydrogen, Oxygen and Carbon atoms,according to the British Nutrition Recommendations, this group should make up one third of the diet and that each meal should be based around one food from this group. They include Bread,Rice, Potatoes, Pasta etc.
These foods provides sustained energy release and some also contains iron and vitamins
FACTS ON CARBOHYDRATE;
Saccharide is another name for carbohydrate. Foods high in carbohydrate includes- Bread, Pasta, Potatoes, Beans,Rice and Cereals.
One gram of carbohydrate contains approximately 4 kilocalories.
High glycemic index carbohydrates quickly enter the bloodstream as glucose.
FUNCTIONS OF CARBOHYDRATE
-It provides energy, heat and regulate blood.
-When there is adequate carbohydrate in a diet, protein does not need to be used to provide energy and heat (protein sparing).
-Provision of stored energy (glycogen).
-It helps in breakdown of fatty acids and preventing ketosis.
-It can serve as a dietary Fibre.
-It can be used as sweeteners and flavours.
Proteins are large, complex molecules that play many critical role in the body and are made up of smaller units called amino-acid, which are attached to one another in long chains.
Protein are known to repair worn-out tissues in the body. They are also required for the structure, regulation and function of the body.
Also, animal protein has more biological value than the plant protein. Protein can be source from Meat, Fish, Egg, Milk,beans etc.
FUNCTIONS OF PROTEIN
-Protein aids growth and repair worn out tissues or cells.
-Protein is a major source of energy.
-It aids in creation of some hormones.
-Protein also serves as antibodies which helps fight against infections and all what not.
-Enzymes are proteins that speed up the rate of chemical reaction in the body.
They include iron, zinc, calcium, iodine,copper, cobalt, magnesium, phosphate,sodium etc.
They are needed by the body in a very minute quantity for the normal functioning of the body. Minerals do not give you energy but can help with other body function. Thus, your body cannot make minerals therefore to meet your daily needs minerals must be obtained through your diets.
Sources where these minerals can be found are Eggs, Green, Leafy vegetables,Liver, Salt, Whole meal fish etc.
FUNCTIONS OF MINERALS
-Formation of haemoglobin in red blood cells.
-Helps in maintenance of water and electrolyte balance.
-Responsible for strong bones and teeth.
- Deficiencies of some of these important minerals
- Calcium-Rickets in children.
- Osteomalacia in adults.
- Flouride-Tooth decay.
The sources of these class of food are oils, mayonnaise, fries, butter, margarine etc.This group of food should only be used often because they are very high in energy, they can be saturated or unsaturated fat. Too much consumption can expose one to heart disease.
FUNCTION OF FATS AND OIL
-Cholesterol (which is a form of fat) can help in formation of steroid hormones.
-It gives protection against cold (insulation) to the body.
-It helps in storage of fat soluble vitamins e.g vitamin A,D,K,E.
-Provision of most concentrated form of energy and heat.
-Some parts of the body are supported by fats in other to be in their position e.g. eye etc.
Vitamins are very essential chemicals compounds required in small quantity for normal body metabolism. they can be divided into 2 groups;
1. Fat soluble vitamins; They contain vitamins A,D,E,K. Sources – Carrot,Vegetables, Fish, Oil, milk, Nuts, Cereal,Animal fat, Liver etc.
2.Water soluble vitamins; They vitamin B complex and C. Sources – Legumes, Green leaf, Yeast, Egg yolk, Soyabean etc.
FUNCTION OF VITAMINS
-They serve as anti-oxidant.
-They aid cells growth and differentiation.
-They promote calcification of bones and teeth.
-Promotion of good health and skin.
-They aid blood coagulation (clothing).
Deficiencies of some of these vitamins
- Vitamin A-Blurred vision.
- Vitamin D-Rickets in children/Ostiomalacia in adult.
- Vitamin E-Reduced immunity.
- Vitamin B1-Beri-beri.
- Vitamin B12-Peripheral neuropathy.
- Vitamin B2-Cracking of the skin.
The human body is made up of 50 – 65% of water. Thus, making it an essential element of the body. Man can live without food for some days or weeks but that cannot be said for water because the body losses fluids in various ways like through strenuous exercise, skin evaporation, stooling, urine etc. and so we need to balance our water output or one may suffer dehydration.
N:B; It is advisable and healthy for one to consume water every morning.
FUNCTIONS OF WATER
-It provides a medium for the removal of waste products through urine, sweat,feaces etc.
-It is the major constituent of blood and tissue fluids.
-It helps to maintain a comfortable moist internal environment required by living cells in the body.
-Water helps regulate the temperature of the body.
-It aids digestion of food.
-it helps in flushing the intestines etc.