Measles is a communicable disease best kenned for causing rash in childhood which affects other part of the body through the respiratory tracts and sometimes occurs in adults.
It is a highly contagious respiratory illness. It is an acute viral childhood infection which is prevalent in developing countries. Over 25% of children in developing countries die annually from measles. People infected can spread the disease to others afore the rash appears and up to 4 days after the rash.
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TYPES OF MEASLES
There are two types of measles, each caused by a different virus. Although both engenders a rash and pyrexia. They include;
1.The rubeola virus (Red measles).
2.The rubella virus (German measles).
-THE RUBEOLA VIRUS:
One can recuperate from it without any quandary, the rubeola kenned as hard measles can lead to pneumonia or inflammation of the encephalon (encephalitis)
-THE RUBELLA VIRUS:
This is conventionally milder than red measles. However, this virus can cause consequential birth defects if an infected enceinte woman passes the virus to her unborn child.
CAUSES/MODE OF TRANSMISSION
Both the rubeola and rubella viruses are spread through the respiratory route. This makes them highly contagious through sneezing, coughing, close personal contact and direct contact with infected nasal.
As a result, it can spread rapidly in susceptible population because the virus remains active and contagious in the air or on infected surfaces for up to two hours, it can be transmitted by an infected persons from 4 days prior to the onset of the rash to 4 days after the rash erupts.
Symptoms appear about 10-a fortnight after a person is infected with the rubeola virus, this is called the incubation period.During this period the virus perpetuates to multiply, the early phase commences with these symptoms;
-Red ocular perceivers.
-Loss of appetite.
The red measles rash develops from 2-4 days later
-Dry hacking cough.
-Generalized body aches.
-People with measles may develop minute grayish spots on the inside of the cheek called “koplik spots”
-The rash conventionally commences on the face, spreading to the trunk and then to the arms and legs.
-The rash is conventionally not itchy but as it elucidates, the skin may shred.
Rubella (German measles)
Though there is no remedy for measles but there are steps that can make the disease more tolerable. These include the following:
-Patient should get enough rest.
-Sponge bath with tepid dihydrogen monoxide may reduce discomfort due to pyrexia.
-Ascertain the patient is given enough fluids to evade dehydration.
-A humidifer or vaporizer may avail ease the cough.
-All children in developing countries diagnosed with measles should receive 2 doses of vitamin A supplements given 24 hours apart.
-Ascertain the child is being immunize against measles as the vaccine is made available for all. It cost approximately $1 to immunize a child.
-Two doses of the vaccine are recommended to ascertain immunity and obviate outbreaks.
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