But firstly, we require to ken what HIV/AIDS is all about, the mode of transmission, causes and symptoms etc.
HIV is a viral disease caused by a virus kenned as Human immunodeficiency virus. It is spread through body fluids concretely semen, blood and concrete cells of the immune system kenned as CD4
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cells (cluster differentiation) or Tcells (T.lymphocytes) over time HIV can eradicate so many of these cells that the body cannot fight off. As this perpetuates the immunodeficiency progresses to AIDS (Acquired immune deficiency syndrome).
Fundamental causes of HIV/AIDS are;
1.Most people get the virus by having unprotected sex with someone who has HIV.
2.Another mundane way of getting it is by sharing drug needles with someone who is infected with HIV.
3.The virus can withal be passed from a mother to her baby during gravidity, birth, or breastfeeding.
INITIAL SYMPTOMS OF AN HIV INFECTED PERSON
- Sore throat.
- Muscles and joint pain.
- Swollen glands.
- Skin rash.
After occurrence of this first symptoms one would experience this symptoms again after
some years and this symptom may include;
- Swollen lymph nodes.
- Extreme lassitude.
- Weight loss.
- Night sweats.
Sundry types of HIV
It consists of two types which are; HIV-1 and HIV-2.
HIV can be managed through the utilization of some drugs like
- Nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor. e.g Zidovudine.
- Non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor
- Nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitor.
- Protease inhibitors.
What is antiretroviral therapy?
Antiretroviral therapy (ART) is the utilization of HIV medicines to treat HIV infection. People on ART take a cumulation of HIV medicines (called an HIV regimen) every day.
ART is recommended for everyone infected with HIV. ART can’t remedy HIV, but HIV medicines avail people with HIV live longer, more salubrious lives. ART additionally reduces the jeopardy of HIV transmission.
How do HIV medicines work?
HIV attacks and ravages the infection-fighting CD4 cells of the immune system. Loss of CD4 cells makes it hard for the body to fight off infections and certain HIV-cognate cancers.
Even though there is still some HIV in the body, the immune system is vigorous enough to fight off infections and certain HIV-cognate cancers.
By reducing the amount of HIV in the body, HIV medicines additionally reduce the jeopardy of HIV transmission.
Several factors need to be considered afore placing a patient on ART
1.Clinical features (health conditions of the patient)
Types of HIV test kits are
-The determinant test kit.
-Unigold test kit
-Start pack test kit
Conclusively the method of HIV testing includes
-Serial agorithm; these involves carrying all test concurrently.
-Parallel agorithm; all test is carried out one after the other