Basic HIV & AIDS – Causes, symptoms, and treatments

HIV/AID(s) has perpetuated to deteriorate many regions of the world, according to the World Health Organization (WHO) at the cessation of 2010 there was an estimated ecumenical increase in the affected persons to about 34million people but several preventive measures and vigilance of the disease has availed to contain the disease which has led to a steady increase which has reached 38.8million people living with this virus

 But firstly, we require to ken what HIV/AIDS is all about, the mode of transmission, causes and symptoms etc.

 HIV is a viral disease caused by a virus kenned as Human immunodeficiency virus. It is spread through body fluids concretely semen, blood and concrete cells of the immune system kenned as CD4

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 cells (cluster differentiation) or Tcells (T.lymphocytes) over time HIV can eradicate so many of these cells that the body cannot fight off. As this perpetuates the immunodeficiency progresses to AIDS (Acquired immune deficiency syndrome).

causes of hiv aids

Fundamental causes of HIV/AIDS are;

1.Most people get the virus by having unprotected sex with someone who has HIV.
2.Another mundane way of getting it is by sharing drug needles with someone who is infected with HIV.
3.The virus can withal be passed from a mother to her baby during gravidity, birth, or breastfeeding.


  • Pyrexia.
  • Sore throat.
  • Headache.
  • Muscles and joint pain.
  • Swollen glands.
  • Skin rash.

These symptoms may occur for some days to maybe several weeks after a person is first infected, the early symptoms conventionally peregrinate away within 2 to 3 weeks.

 After occurrence of this first symptoms one would experience this symptoms again after
some years and this symptom may include;

  • Swollen lymph nodes.
  • Extreme lassitude.
  • Weight loss.
  • Night sweats.

 Sundry types of HIV
It consists of two types which are; HIV-1 and HIV-2.
 HIV can be managed through the utilization of some drugs like

  • Nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor. e.g Zidovudine.
  • Non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor
  • Nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitor.
  • Protease inhibitors.

 Mode of registering this drugs to patient is through the coalescence of two or more drugs from each of these classes to efficaciously combat the virus for example one Non-nucleoside  reverse transcriptase inhibitor(NNRTI) plus two nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors and treatment with the amalgamation of this drugs are kenned as first line therapy when the body resist the drugs that is when it is no longer efficacious as a result of abuse or perpetuated treatment, coalescence of drugs which include protease inhibitor(PI) like alluvia are utilized and when these are utilized on the patient it is referred to as a second line therapy. eventually if the system still resists the second line therapy too nothing else can be done then the patient is verbally expressed to be resistance to therapy.

What is antiretroviral therapy?
Antiretroviral therapy (ART) is the utilization of HIV medicines to treat HIV infection. People on ART take a cumulation of HIV medicines (called an HIV regimen) every day. 

ART is recommended for everyone infected with HIV. ART can’t remedy HIV, but HIV medicines avail people with HIV live longer, more salubrious lives. ART additionally reduces the jeopardy of HIV transmission.

How do HIV medicines work?
HIV attacks and ravages the infection-fighting CD4 cells of the immune system. Loss of CD4 cells makes it hard for the body to fight off infections and certain HIV-cognate cancers.

Even though there is still some HIV in the body, the immune system is vigorous enough to fight off infections and certain HIV-cognate cancers.

By reducing the amount of HIV in the body, HIV medicines additionally reduce the jeopardy of HIV transmission.

     Several factors need to be considered afore placing a patient on ART
1.Clinical features (health conditions of the patient)
2.Lab test.

Types of HIV test kits are
-The determinant test kit.
-Unigold test kit
-Start pack test kit

   Conclusively the method of HIV testing includes

-Serial agorithm; these involves carrying all test concurrently.
-Parallel agorithm; all test is carried out one after the other

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